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Beer Stabilization Protein & Polyphenol Control Chill haze stabilization is an important consideration for beers that are distributed throughout a territory and require any degree of shelf stability. Most retailers and consumers expect clarity and no post-bottling sedimentation in beer on a consistent basis, and with today’s flavorful and wide varieties of beers, the potential for instability exists. Through the use of either silica-based
Beer Stabilization (continued)
BASF Divergan ® F and Divergan ® RS PVPP (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone) Gusmer is a major distributor of Divergan F to the beer industry. Manufactured by BASF, Divergan F is used throughout the world to chill haze stabilize beer. BASF’s unique polymerization process produces the purest polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, which more selectively adsorbs the polyphenols that can cause instabilities. There is evidence that Divergan F also helps to stabilize flavor through the reduction of flavonoid polyphenols, which are particularly prone to polymerize into products of higher molecular weight and potential bitter flavor. Divergan F works quickly, and its short contact time means it can frequently be dosed inline, but it can also be dosed in a batch method. Divergan RS is a regenerable PVPP, which works in the same manner, but offers some economies to larger facilities that are set up to regenerate it. Alone: 10-30 g/hL (~2.5-7.75 lb/100 US bbl) With Silica: 10-20 g/hL (~2.5-5.0 lb/100 US bbl) Alone: 25-40 g/hL (~5-10 lb/100 US bbl). With Silica: 10-30 g/hL (~2.5-7.75 lb/100US bbl) Contact time: 5 minutes Polyphenol removal effectiveness: 55% of mass Dose Rate: Beer more than 65% malt Particle Size: ~ 50 um Dose Rate: Beer up to 65% malt
PQ Corporation BRITESORB ® A100 – ( Silica Hydrogel ) Silica Hydrogel is an amorphous silica powder, which is non-dusting and free flowing, and has a moisture content of approximately 65%. BRITESORB A100 works through size exclusion. The surface of BRITESORB A100 is engineered with a moderately sized porosity, which selectively allows for the internal adsorption of haze-forming proteins while retarding the entry of larger, foam-positive proteins. An excellent choice for chillproofing lighter style beers, BRITESORB A100 has a high permeability factor that allows for faster filtration rates and longer filter runs.
stabilizing agents or PVPP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone) polymer-based stabilizing agents, chill haze stabilization can be achieved without affecting flavor, aroma, body or head retention. These stabilizing agents are widely used, economical and readily available through Gusmer Enterprises. Chill haze is caused by the natural reaction of “sensitive proteins” (proteins rich in proline) and polyphenols, both of which are inherently found in beer. These sensitive proteins and polyphenols agglomerate to form larger colloids which are insoluble at cold storage and serving temperatures. The instability results in a precipitation which creates cloudy beer or bottle sediment. Stability of the beer can be achieved by removing either the sensitive proteins or the polyphenols, so that the two cannot so readily react with each other. Silica-based stabilizers, whether amorphous solids or colloidal liquids, used in the brewing process have a small particle size (8 nm to 16 microns) and are highly porous with typical surface areas from about 300 m 2 /g to more than 1,000 m 2 /g. These specially engineered silica particles are hydrophilic due to coverage of their surface by hydroxyl (silanol) groups. It is the interactions of proline with these silanol groups that enable the selective adsorption of sensitive proteins from beer. PVPP polymer-based stabilizers are approximately 50 microns in size and have a high affinity for flavonoid polyphenols via hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding. Both forms of stabilizing agents are ultimately removed from the beer through centrifugation or filtration. The choice to use either a silica-based stabilizer or a PVPP polymer-based stabilizer is up to the brewer, and for beers that are more difficult to stabilize, the use of both agents may synergistically result in stabilization. Preparation of Stabilizers Kieselsol: These solutions come ready-made and can be added as described in the dosing section below. Hydrogel/Xerogel/PVPP: The amorphous powder should be mixed with deoxygenated water at a 10% w/w ratio. (1 kg powder: 10 liters DAW or ~8 lb: 10 USG DAW). The use of a CO 2 sparger in the slurry water will help to deoxygenate the water. Agitation: Hydrogel/Xerogel – Agitate slurry for at least 20 minutes prior to addition. PVPP – Agitate slurry for 1-2 hours prior to addition. Dosing of Stabilizers Inline Method: The kieselsol, hydrogel/xerogel or PVPP slurries are dosed proportionally into the beer stream by means of a metering pump. The products are allowed to react with the beer. Depending upon contact time required for each product, a buffer tank may be utilized. Resultant sediments should be removed via filtration depending on the requirements of the specific stabilizer. Batch Method: Add the kieselsol or hydrogel/xerogel/ PVPP slurries into the product while filling the finishing tank. Add the stabilizing agent proportionally during the fill or as a single shot method through the spray ball arm. Once the stabilizing agent has reacted with the respective protein or tannin, it will settle to the bottom of the tank as sediment. Settling times vary due to tank geometry and stabilizer/protein/tannin complex size. The stabilized beer can be separated from the sediment prior to filtration and any leftover sediment is easily removed during CIP. Inadvertent over-dosing or contact time of several days causes no negative effects in the beer.
Particle Size: ~ 16 um Dose Rate: Beer up to 65% malt
40-50 g/hL (~10-12 lb/100 US bbl)
Dose Rate: Beer more than 65% malt
50-70 g/hL (~12-17 lb/100 US bbl)
Contact time: 20 minutes Permeability: 0.15 D’Arcy Sizes: 50 lb bags
PQ Corporation BRITESORB ® D300 – ( Silica Xerogel ) Silica Xerogel is an amorphous, free flowing powder of approximately 5% moisture content. Pound for pound, it is a more effective stabilizer than Silica Hydrogel. BRITESORB D300 utilizes the same adsorption principals as A100, but in addition, BRITESORB D300 is activated by a patented process that increases its affinity for sensitive protein. This typically allows for short contact times and reduced dose rates. A good candidate to stabilize difficult brews, BRITESORB D300 has a good permeability factor and can be used in conjunction with PVPP.
Divergan F Sizes: 20 kg drums Divergan RS Size: 20 kg drums
Particle Size: ~ 12 um Dose Rate: Beer up to 70% malt
25-40 g/hL (~6-10 lb/100 US bbl) Dose Rate: Beer more than 70% malt 40-60 g/hL (~10-15 lb/100 US bbl)
Contact time: 5 minutes Permeability: 0.05 D’Arcy Sizes: 40 lb bags
For more information on beer chill haze stabilization and the use of stabilizing agents, please contact your Gusmer representative.
Micrograph of Divergan ® F (PVPP)
16 2022 - 2023 Gusmer Enterprises, Inc. Brewing Products Catalog
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